Computer Programming – 1C Plus Plus Street http://1cplusplusstreet.com/ Wed, 21 Jul 2021 23:36:36 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/default.png Computer Programming – 1C Plus Plus Street http://1cplusplusstreet.com/ 32 32 Space Jam: A New Legacy Is Different From The Original (And That’s Okay) https://1cplusplusstreet.com/space-jam-a-new-legacy-is-different-from-the-original-and-thats-okay/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/space-jam-a-new-legacy-is-different-from-the-original-and-thats-okay/#respond Wed, 21 Jul 2021 21:28:56 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/space-jam-a-new-legacy-is-different-from-the-original-and-thats-okay/ i entered the movie Space Jam: a new legacy with almost no expectation. It is, after all, a Looney Tunes movie aimed at children. I know a lot of you will be ardently opposed to this movie just because it stars LeBron James and therefore it’s an affront to Michael Jordan. While I don’t share […]]]>

i entered the movie Space Jam: a new legacy with almost no expectation. It is, after all, a Looney Tunes movie aimed at children. I know a lot of you will be ardently opposed to this movie just because it stars LeBron James and therefore it’s an affront to Michael Jordan. While I don’t share this sentiment, I understand it to some extent. Hope as many of you hate reading this article as people hate watching TBH movie. From now on, the focus will be on the new movie only, so if you’ve only opened it to leave a message about MJ> LBJ, the comments section is at the bottom of the page.

Parcel

LeBron James plays a fictional version of himself, basketball superstar / family man. LeBron wants his sons to follow in his basketball footsteps, but his youngest son Dom is more interested in computer programming and video game design.

Meanwhile, at Warner Brothers Studios, their AI interface, Al G. Rhythm, has the perfect pitch for a collaboration between WB and LeBron. When LeBron berates said pitch, it sends Al into a fury, and he goes to full Skynet. He sucks LeBron and Dom into the “Server-verse” and sets out to succeed anyway, kidnapping Dom. Al-G challenges LeBron to a basketball game: If LeBron wins, he gets his child back, but if he loses, he has to accept the collaboration agreement. LeBron can choose from the entire WB catalog to build his team. LBJ and Bugs Bunny travel the multiverse to form the team and reform the Tune Squad. At the time of the game, LeBron and Co learn that they are not playing a traditional game, but rather the video game version created by Dom. A high stakes game ensues.

What I liked

the casting

Don Cheadle absolutely owns the screen whenever he’s around. He plays a formidable villain and wears every scene he’s in. Lil Rel Howery, providing the full color commentary, made me fall in love with it throughout the game. The herd of extras dressed in various WB costumes circling the pitch during the game were also formidable. My son and I had fun pointing out different characters in the background. Finally, I enjoyed a little Walking Dead reunion with Sonequa Martin-Green as LeBron’s wife and Steven Yeun as a Warner Brothers executive. There was also a nice appearance at halftime.

The story

It was cheesy and cheesy, of course. That being said, this is a Looney Tunes movie made for kids. If you were looking for Citizen Kane-type depth, you were watching the wrong movie. It comes down to the story of a father and son who are just not on the same page. Dad wants the best for his son but can’t see the forest for the trees when it comes to what his son wants. Finally, dad realizes his mistake and finally understands what his son has been trying to tell him from the start. It resonated very well with my son, and I imagine a lot of other yutes there.

The Multiverse WB

I really enjoyed the way LeBron and Bugs bounced off different franchises. Seeing the two move from one universe to another was another opportunity for some substantive jokes based on individual properties. Seeing the Looney Tunes in the DC Universe was hilarious because they made LeBron Robin the Batman of Bugs. The army of extras littering the pitch during the game was a lot of fun for us as we watched.

What I did not like

Soundtrack

I am breaking the rule I stated in the opening paragraph, as I am comparing this soundtrack to that of the original film. This 1996 soundtrack is amazing, easy listening with no skipping. This movie just didn’t have that.

LeBron Character / Story

His character was just too rigid for my taste. Very unique and robotic, with the focus being exclusively on basketball and nothing else. I realize this was to help put the overall story together (something I mentioned above that I liked), but I think his character could have been more interesting without changing the trajectory of the movie. Plus, that opening scene where a young LeBron throws his Gameboy 20 minutes after he got it because coach Avon Barksdale gave him a “pep talk” just wasn’t it.

A young LeBron James (played by Stephen Kankole) gets lost in his Gameboy.
Photo: Warner Bros. Pictures

3d animation

He’s just an old man screaming at the time of the clouds. I prefer the traditional 2D style that we see for much of the movie. While FX was cool for going from 2D to 3D, it’s just not my thing.

Verdict

In conclusion, I liked the film. I liked it for what it was, despite some things that I didn’t really like. As I have made a point of emphasizing throughout this review, this is a film made for children. I think one of the fairest ways to end this review is to receive feedback from my son, who is about to turn six. Here is his direct quote after he finished watching the movie: “I liked LeBron’s epic moves, but I think the former is better.” As they say, from babies’ mouths come truth and wisdom. That’s it, guys.



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Application programming interface (API)? – Everything you need to know https://1cplusplusstreet.com/application-programming-interface-api-everything-you-need-to-know/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/application-programming-interface-api-everything-you-need-to-know/#respond Wed, 21 Jul 2021 09:54:49 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/application-programming-interface-api-everything-you-need-to-know/ Why do we need APIs? The importance of the application programming interface is manifold. The role of the API is to make it faster, easier and more efficient for users to use data for a specific purpose. We have seen the application programming interface be used in significant ways in the private sector in all […]]]>

Why do we need APIs?

The importance of the application programming interface is manifold. The role of the API is to make it faster, easier and more efficient for users to use data for a specific purpose.

We have seen the application programming interface be used in significant ways in the private sector in all businesses, globally. However, it has been observed that governments are now also using APIs in their systems as it makes their applications nimble and flexible.

While we agree that legacy systems run in silos and that today’s businesses want to move from legacy systems to the latest cloud-based systems, APIs are an integral part of this whole framework.

Additionally, organizations that are already on the path to digital transformation and have different systems in place for different purposes, are looking to interconnect applications so that data is available centrally. This is another reason APIs are needed, as they will eventually help organizations make informed decisions.

While companies raise concerns about the security aspects of the application programming interface, but today programmers make sure that the building blocks of these APIs are strong. Additionally, APIs come with a series of permissions and audit trails to provide convenience for businesses and governments when it comes to application security.

Technology is continually evolving and we are seeing new systems causing a paradigm shift in the way businesses manage their data. The application programming interface will play a key role in the new dimension of application operation.

(Also read: Tech Stack – A Definitive Guide)


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Buffalo Bill Center of the West administrator resigns after revelation of racist bulletin | State and regional https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-state-and-regional/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-state-and-regional/#respond Tue, 20 Jul 2021 19:15:00 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-state-and-regional/ “Constant Contact felt the need to remove (cancel) me because of an article I published,” McIntosh said in an email to the Star-Tribune. “Therefore, I am afraid of falling into the dark until I can hire another service which will facilitate the publication of articles … which are so well received by my subscribers.” The […]]]>

“Constant Contact felt the need to remove (cancel) me because of an article I published,” McIntosh said in an email to the Star-Tribune. “Therefore, I am afraid of falling into the dark until I can hire another service which will facilitate the publication of articles … which are so well received by my subscribers.”

The episode he refers to in the email was an essay he published in the newsletter “On the Question of Systemic Racism in the United States,” written by someone under a pseudonym. The essay stated that black people have “become socially incompatible with other races” and that “black American culture has become an irreparable and criminal mess.” The essay also stated that whites are not racist, but rather “just burned out” with blacks.

“Frankly speaking, it is an indisputable fact that over the years too many blacks continue to show an inability to function and thrive in a culture manifestly unsuitable for them,” the essay continues. “It’s interesting that black people never seem to take responsibility for their failures. Instead, they run wild with anger and resentment and blame someone else. “

According to McIntosh’s social media, it appears he was sending out three, four, sometimes even five newsletter installments a day.

“Although the article deals with the issue of racism, I do not and do not think it should in any way be characterized as promoting or endorsing racism,” McIntosh said in an email from the July 14 to Constant Content, with the subject line “CANCELLATION.” In that same email, McIntosh charges the termination of Constant Content to The Informant, naming the reporter who wrote the article.


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Buffalo Bill Center of the West administrator resigns after revelation of racist bulletin | 307 Politics https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-307-politics/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-307-politics/#respond Tue, 20 Jul 2021 03:04:38 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/buffalo-bill-center-of-the-west-administrator-resigns-after-revelation-of-racist-bulletin-307-politics/ “Constant Contact felt the need to remove (cancel) me because of an article I published,” McIntosh said in an email to the Star-Tribune. “Therefore, I am afraid of falling into the dark until I can hire another service which will facilitate the publication of articles … which are so well received by my subscribers.” The […]]]>


“Constant Contact felt the need to remove (cancel) me because of an article I published,” McIntosh said in an email to the Star-Tribune. “Therefore, I am afraid of falling into the dark until I can hire another service which will facilitate the publication of articles … which are so well received by my subscribers.”

The episode he refers to in the email was an essay he published in the newsletter “On the Question of Systemic Racism in the United States,” written by someone under a pseudonym. The essay stated that black people have “become socially incompatible with other races” and that “black American culture has become an irreparable and criminal mess.” The essay also stated that whites are not racist, but rather “just burned out” with blacks.

“Frankly speaking, it is an indisputable fact that over the years too many blacks continue to show an inability to function and thrive in a culture manifestly unsuitable for them,” the essay continues. “It’s interesting that black people never seem to take responsibility for their failures. Instead, they run wild with anger and resentment and blame someone else. “

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According to McIntosh’s social media, it appears he was sending out three, four, sometimes even five newsletter installments a day.

“Although the article deals with the issue of racism, I do not and do not think it should in any way be characterized as promoting or endorsing racism,” McIntosh said in an email from the July 14 to Constant Content, with the subject line “CANCELLATION.” In that same email, McIntosh charges the termination of Constant Content to The Informant, naming the reporter who wrote the article.



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Computer Science Department unable to admit all qualified students as applications double available places | New https://1cplusplusstreet.com/computer-science-department-unable-to-admit-all-qualified-students-as-applications-double-available-places-new/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/computer-science-department-unable-to-admit-all-qualified-students-as-applications-double-available-places-new/#respond Sun, 18 Jul 2021 23:58:00 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/computer-science-department-unable-to-admit-all-qualified-students-as-applications-double-available-places-new/ Demand is high for acceptance into the Computer Science Program (CSC) at NC State. On May 25, David Parish, associate dean of the College of Engineering, wrote in an email that the number of major applicants at CSC was almost double the number of places available. But that request came at a cost – the […]]]>


Demand is high for acceptance into the Computer Science Program (CSC) at NC State. On May 25, David Parish, associate dean of the College of Engineering, wrote in an email that the number of major applicants at CSC was almost double the number of places available. But that request came at a cost – the department only accepted 75 of 107 applicants attempting CODA in CSC’s major. That’s almost double the number of applicants in fall 2020, when 50 out of 68 applicants were accepted into the CSC major.

The College of Engineering first adopted the CODA process in the fall of 2012, where freshmen enrolled in the state of North Carolina with a “First Year of Engineering” designation in their audit. From there, students have their first four semesters to complete some basic requirements before applying for a major in the College of Engineering.

Sam Gerstner, a sophomore engineering student, said he tried to turn his degree application (CODA) into a CSC major during the spring semester of 2021. Because the University requires that students who plan to CODA meet CODA requirements in all four semesters, Gerstner added a minor in computer programming to be safe.

“It’s very competitive,” Gerstner said. “Especially considering the email, they said they had twice as many applicants as they could actually authorize.”

With the 2021 SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education ranking the North Carolina State Department of Computing as “the # 1 institution in the world for research in computer education,” the The University’s senior CSC department has not gone unnoticed.

“I think it’s a pretty good process, getting the students to come in and take a bunch of core classes so they can kinda see what they like and don’t like and decide if they want to go into it. the major they chose, ”Gerstner said. “I think the way it’s implemented, with the number of students trying to apply for certain majors and then the state of North Carolina not allowing certain students to enter the major for which they were accepted into college in the first place… meaning to me.

The state of North Carolina’s rise among top CSC applicants is not a local anomaly, with CSC departments and students across the country also reporting increasingly competitive growth. According to a Computer Research Association survey, 32,180 students entered a computer science major in 2020 alone – a 3% drop from the 33,184 newly admitted students in 2019. This growth, according to the Computer Research Association, mainly concerns “departments of public establishments, while private establishments show a relatively stable average enrollment rate.

Jérôme Lavelle, associate dean of the College of Engineering, wrote in an email to Technician that the increase in applicants also reflects this national trend.

“Students see new fields like cybersecurity, data science, blockchain, games, simulation and modeling, smart devices and infrastructure, and others, as exciting new frontiers that they want to make. party, ”Lavelle wrote. “At the same time, they see that computers are transforming the finance, manufacturing, entertainment and service industries, as well as healthcare, education, supply chain and other professional sectors. traditional. Computers and computing aren’t going away anytime soon, and I think students see the CSC major as providing them with skills that will be highly marketable in the workplace today and tomorrow.

Despite the growth of interest in the undergraduate studies, CSC departments are struggling to meet this high demand. According to the Computer Research Association survey, “cumulative growth in faculty is only about half that of majors,” with the COVID-19 pandemic causing further layoffs. Lavelle wrote that the Computer Science Department faces similar admissions issues, as admitting all qualified students would compromise reasonable class sizes, available resources, and hence the quality of education.

“Expanding any program requires trade-offs involving increasing capacity and maintaining quality,” Lavelle wrote. “We are working hard to develop the CSC program, while maintaining the high reputation the program has earned. “

However, all hope is not lost for the deferred applicants. Parish and Lavelle both suggested adding a minor in computer programming as additional material in the meantime, and Lavelle wrote that students also have the option of applying to major in computer engineering and electrical engineering.

“Some majors fluctuate based on student interest; however, I anticipate that demand for SCC will be strong over the next several years, ”Lavelle wrote.

As for Gerstner, he said he continues to plan to apply for the CSC major in the next school year. If he is unable to get it, Gerstner has said he could be transferred to another school to enter the lucrative major.

“I believe [the department] hasn’t seen their budget increase for some time, ”Gerstner said. “They don’t have the funding to increase the number of seats in general at the University, so they have more people applying throughout the year but are unable to increase the number of seats.”



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Free Brothers and support IT heritage at UAB-News https://1cplusplusstreet.com/free-brothers-and-support-it-heritage-at-uab-news/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/free-brothers-and-support-it-heritage-at-uab-news/#respond Sun, 18 Jul 2021 03:38:12 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/free-brothers-and-support-it-heritage-at-uab-news/ Brothers Jeffrey, Stephen, Eric and Jonathan discuss how IT has influenced their crossroads and careers. Author: Eric Lamar BurtsMedia contacts: Yvonne Taunton Brothers Jeffrey, Stephen, Eric and Jonathan discuss how IT has influenced their crossroads and careers. The dawn of the digital age has surprised millions of people trying to understand advanced computer technology. From […]]]>


Brothers Jeffrey, Stephen, Eric and Jonathan discuss how IT has influenced their crossroads and careers.

Author: Eric Lamar Burts
Media contacts: Yvonne Taunton

Brothers Jeffrey, Stephen, Eric and Jonathan discuss how IT has influenced their crossroads and careers. The dawn of the digital age has surprised millions of people trying to understand advanced computer technology. From the first desktop computers developed to self-driving cars, innovative technologies continue to inspire.

For a family, this technology is an unexpected heirloom University of Alabama at Birmingham. Jeffrey, Eric, Stephen and Jonathan Frees are all graduate siblings. Computer Science Department of the College of Liberal Arts I work with programs in the computer science field.

“For as long as I can remember, I have been interested in computers,” said Jeffrey Freeze. “From a young age, I was fascinated by trying to figure out all I could do with the old text interface on my family’s computer. In computer science, the explosive growth of the Internet and technology throughout high school. Career seemed like a natural fit. “

Jeffrey Frees works as a senior consultant at the oldest of the four, a global information technology consulting firm. He graduated from UAB in computer science with a bachelor’s degree in 2008 and a master’s degree in 2010. While at UAB, he chaired the UAB student branch of the Association for Computing Machinery. He also competed with his brother Eric in the UAB Competitive Programming team before becoming a coach.

Jeffrey Freeze says his extensive experience in the department gave his brother the confidence to study computer science.

Eric Frees is a software engineer in a construction software company. After coming into contact with the Java programming language, he became more interested in computer science in high school and enrolled in UAB. High school programming competition After that you will get a degree in computer science.

“There are lots of opportunities for anyone who can develop software,” says Eric Frees. “For example, 10 or 15 years ago, we didn’t all have smartphones in our pockets. Now this is a big area where development is taking place and new ideas are starting. Of course, how the concept applies. The details of what will be done will continue to change, but there is always a demand for new technologies. “

For Stephen Frees, a computer scientist in an avionics analysis company, his interest in graphic design led him to learn programming.

“In the process, we learned to use scripts to automate sequences,” says Stephen Frees. “It sparked my interest in what you can do with programming. ”

Following in the footsteps of his brothers, Stephen Freeze joined the School of Computer Science at UAB.

“It was fascinating to me, and that’s when I really knew what I wanted to pursue professionally,” he said.

Jonathan Freeze, Freeze’s younger brother and systems programmer at the Computer Forensics Institute, says his path to computing was different. Many thought he chose computing for his brother, but Jonathan looked for another option first. He decided to join a computer science program after realizing that other majors weren’t interested in him.

“After taking the Introductory CS course things started to kick in and I fell in love with it,” said Jonathan Frees. “Solving problems that many did not solve was very rewarding. The way things are done in IT is elegantly beautiful. Even if you do a lot of the same things, there is always something new to discover and learn. We never get stuck there, and I’m lucky to find something I like. ”

The Frees Brothers advise anyone interested in computer science to find areas of interest and to have hands-on experiences to enhance their experience. Take every opportunity to learn a new programming language or establish a professional relationship.

For more information on UAB’s computer program, please email us. csundergraduateprograms@uab.edu You can also visit the websites of the following departments: uab.edu/cas/computerscience Please complete the Contact Us page of the form.



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Ketlin De Mello Moreira Selected for DOE Summer Research Program https://1cplusplusstreet.com/ketlin-de-mello-moreira-selected-for-doe-summer-research-program/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/ketlin-de-mello-moreira-selected-for-doe-summer-research-program/#respond Fri, 16 Jul 2021 23:49:49 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/ketlin-de-mello-moreira-selected-for-doe-summer-research-program/ Ketlin de Mello Moreira became one of 90 community college students across the country to be shortlisted for summer research opportunities by the US Department of Energy. Ketlin, who is on track to graduate this summer, is a computer information technology student at Chattanooga State Community College specializing in programming. She works as a software […]]]>


Ketlin de Mello Moreira became one of 90 community college students across the country to be shortlisted for summer research opportunities by the US Department of Energy. Ketlin, who is on track to graduate this summer, is a computer information technology student at Chattanooga State Community College specializing in programming. She works as a software developer and research intern at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Even though Ms. Moreira has a Bachelor of Arts in English Language and Literature, the enthusiasm she expected in the field left her feeling ‘meh’. Then it happened. “The spark I was missing ignited the instant I saw a close friend create a colorful, fully responsive website,” Ms. Moreira recalls. “Software and website development appeals to all of my passions, combining my creativity, providing useful information and detailed problem solving. ”

Participating in a solid series of activities since June 7 at ORNL, Ms. Moreira had the opportunity to meet many scientists and researchers in various fields of expertise, to understand the process of scientific discovery and to experience their solutions to energy and security issues.

“Technology plays an important role in making it easier for an individual to communicate, learn and think,” Ms. Moreira said. “Through my new career, I will help simplify the use of data and information in all areas of art, science, technology and engineering.

Ms. Moreira continues to be impressed with her new career choice. “One of the most fascinating activities I have been involved in at ORNL has been developing an application in CUDA to run on the Summit, the most powerful computer ever built in the country.”

A sudden change of career is not without anxiety, but Ms. Moreira thanks Savitha Pinnepalli, head of the CIT department at ChattState, for her unwavering dedication. “Madame. Savitha not only helped me navigate the course, but made me believe countless times in my potential, whether through the way she conducts her classes or through academic guidance.

Ms. Moreira is already considering her next steps. “My next short term goal is to join the workforce as a software developer. After that, I plan to pursue an MBA in Management Information Systems at Tennessee Tech.

State of Chattanooga. Start here… go anywhere.



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It was how difficult it was to create the first Chinese computer fonts https://1cplusplusstreet.com/it-was-how-difficult-it-was-to-create-the-first-chinese-computer-fonts/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/it-was-how-difficult-it-was-to-create-the-first-chinese-computer-fonts/#respond Fri, 16 Jul 2021 08:07:08 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/it-was-how-difficult-it-was-to-create-the-first-chinese-computer-fonts/ Bruce Rosenblum turned on his Apple II, the power-on tone could be heard, then the floppy disk drive slammed. After a series of keystrokes, Sanyo’s 12-inch monitor began to glow. A green grid appeared, 16 units wide and 16 units high. It was “Gridmaster,” a program Bruce had developed in the BASIC programming language to […]]]>


Bruce Rosenblum turned on his Apple II, the power-on tone could be heard, then the floppy disk drive slammed. After a series of keystrokes, Sanyo’s 12-inch monitor began to glow. A green grid appeared, 16 units wide and 16 units high. It was “Gridmaster,” a program Bruce had developed in the BASIC programming language to create one of the world’s first Chinese digital fonts. He developed the font for an experimental calculator called Sinotype III, which was one of the first PCs to understand the Chinese language – both input and output.

At that time, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, no personal computers were produced in the country in China. To build their “Chinese” PC, the Rosenblum team reprogrammed an Apple II to work with the language of the Middle Kingdom. His to-do list was long. He had to reprogram the operating system from scratch, because Apple’s DOS 3.3 simply did not allow input and output of texts with Chinese characters. Likewise, a Chinese word processor wrote by hand, a task he worked on tirelessly for months.

A photo of the Sinotype III monitor shows the Gridmaster program and the process of scanning the Chinese character 电 (dian – electricity).

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

Although Gridmaster is a simple program, it defined the task it was supposed to do – creating digital bitmaps of thousands of Chinese characters – poses a major design challenge. In fact, creating the font for the Sinotype III – a machine then developed by the Graphics Arts Research Foundation (GARF) in Cambridge, Massachusetts – took much longer than building the computers themselves. But without a font, there would be no way to display Chinese characters on the screen or print them on the machine’s dot matrix printer.

More from MIT Technology Review

More from MIT Technology Review

More from MIT Technology Review

More from MIT Technology Review

For each Chinese character, the designers had to make 256 separate decisions, one for each possible pixel in each of the bitmap characters. Multiplied by thousands of characters, that literally meant hundreds of thousands of decisions in a development process that took over two years.

A photo of a Sinotype III monitor displaying bitmap Chinese writing.

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

The development of Gridmaster – which Rosenblum described to Technology Review as “awkward to use at best” – allowed his father Louis Rosenblum, together with GARF, to outsource the responsibility for creating the digital font. With any Apple II computer running Gridmaster from a floppy disk, temporary staff could create and save new bitmaps for Chinese police. As soon as these bitmaps were created and stored, the Rosenblums were able to install them on the Sinotype III using a second program (also developed by Bruce).

Chinese character bitmap project for Sinotype III font.

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

The Sinotype III was never launched. Nonetheless, the meticulous work that went into its development – including the development of its Chinese bitmap font – was of utmost importance in solving a complex global technical problem: how can you equip a computer then narrow to read the Chinese, one of the most complex and used languages ​​in the world?

With the advent of computers and word processing in the West, engineers and designers discovered that a low resolution digital font for English could be built on a 5 by 7 bitmap grid that only required five bytes of memory by symbol. Storing the 128 low-resolution characters in what is known as the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), which contains all the letters of the English alphabet, the digits 0 to 9, and common punctuation, required only 640 bytes of memory – a tiny fraction of the 64 kilobytes of Apple II.

Close-up on a draft bitmap drawing of the word at (背 – back, back) with changes made with Tipp-Ex.

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

But there are tens of thousands of Chinese characters, and a 5 × 7 grid was too small to be read. Chinese requires a grid of at least 16 x 16 pixels or more, that is, at least 32 bytes of memory (256 bits) per character. If you imagine a font containing 70,000 Chinese characters in low resolution, the total memory required would exceed two megabytes, a gigantic number for the time. Even a font containing only 8,000 of the most common Chinese characters would take around 256 kilobytes just to store the bitmaps. This was four times the total storage capacity of most entry-level computers in the early 1980s.

Bitmap characters for juan (娟 – graceful) and mian (娩 – deliver) of the Sinotype III font, recreated by the author.

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

As difficult as this storage hurdle was to overcome, the biggest problems with producing low-resolution Chinese fonts in the 1970s and 1980s were aesthetic and design-related. Long before anyone even started working on a program like Gridmaster, most of the work was done outside the computer, with a pen, paper, and correction fluid. Designers spent years designing bitmaps that met the need for low storage space and maintained a minimum of calligraphic elegance. Those who created this character set by hand by drawing rough bitmaps for some Chinese characters or scanning them with Gridmaster included Lily Huan-Ming Ling and Ellen Di Giovanni.

Symmetry and asymmetry in the characters shan (山 – assemble), zhong (中 – middle), ri (日 – sun) and tian (田 – field).

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

The central problem the designers faced was the combination of two fundamentally different ways of writing Chinese: the handwritten character, which is created with a pen or brush, and the bitmap glyph, which consists of an arrangement of pixels on the X and Y. -axis is generated. The designers had to decide how (and if) they wanted to try to recreate the main spelling characteristics of the Chinese manuscript.

A comparison of two preliminary versions of the character luo (罗 – collection, network).

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

In the case of the Sinotype III font, the process of designing and scanning low-resolution Chinese bitmaps has been widely documented. One of the most fascinating archival sources from this period is a file filled with grids with hand-drawn sketches that were later to be digitized into bitmaps for several thousand Chinese characters. Each of these characters has been carefully laid out and, for the most part, edited by Louis Rosenblum and GARF, using correction fluid to erase any “bits” the typographer disapproved of. A second set of red characters was then placed over the first set of green characters to represent the “final” design. It was only then that the data entry work began.

Given the large number of bitmaps the team had to design – at least 3,000 (and ideally many more) if the device were to meet the needs of Chinese consumers – one would assume that the designers were looking for ways to make their jobs easier. . For example, one possibility would have been to duplicate Chinese stems – the building blocks of a character – when they appeared in roughly the same place, size, and alignment from character to character. When creating the many dozen common Chinese characters of a subspecies, for example, the GARF team could only have created a standard bitmap (and theoretically should have it) and then replicated it in each character. in which this radical appears.

However, such mechanistic decisions were not made, as archival documents show. On the contrary, Louis Rosenblum insisted that designers adjust each of these signage elements – often almost imperceptibly – to ensure that they harmonized with the overall sign in which they appeared. There are minor changes in pixel widths and arcs layout, some of which are only a pixel away. This level of precision has been the rule rather than the exception in all scripture. Despite the seemingly tight space in which designers had to work, they had an overwhelming number of decisions to make. And each of those decisions affected every other decision made for a particular character, as adding a single pixel often changed the overall horizontal and vertical balance.

A comparison of the water radical (氵) as it appeared in the Sinotype III font (right) with an early Chinese font created by HC Tien (left).

(Bild: Louis Rosenblum Collection, Stanford University Library Special Collections)

The inflexible size of the grid influenced the work of designers in other unexpected ways. This is most evident in the evil problem of achieving symmetry. Symmetrical layouts – which are full of Chinese characters – were especially difficult to depict in low-resolution grids because, according to the rules of mathematics, creating symmetry requires areas of space of unequal size. Equal-sized bitmap grids (like the 16 by 16 grid) made symmetry impossible. GARF managed to achieve symmetry by using only part of the global grid in many cases: just a 15 by 15 region in the 16 by 16 global grid. This further reduced the usable area.

Of course, low resolution didn’t stay “low” for long. Advances in computer technology have led to ever higher resolution bitmaps, ever faster processing speeds, and ever lower memory costs. In today’s age of 4K and Retina displays, it can be difficult to appreciate the skills – both aesthetic and technical – that made it possible to create China’s first bitmap fonts, however limited they might be. But it was solutions like these that ultimately gave one-sixth of the world’s population access to computers, new media and then the Internet.

Tom Mullaney is Professor of Chinese History at Stanford University, Guggenheim Fellow, and Kluge Chair in Technology and Society at the Library of Congress. He is the author of the forthcoming book “The Chinese Computer” – the first comprehensive history of computing in Chinese.


(baccalaureate)



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Psychologists have developed a new way of visualizing gender and gender diversity https://1cplusplusstreet.com/psychologists-have-developed-a-new-way-of-visualizing-gender-and-gender-diversity/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/psychologists-have-developed-a-new-way-of-visualizing-gender-and-gender-diversity/#respond Thu, 15 Jul 2021 00:54:16 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/psychologists-have-developed-a-new-way-of-visualizing-gender-and-gender-diversity/ When it comes to gender and / or sex (gender / sex), the story is much richer than just “woman or man”. All over the world, people use an array of terms to describe their identity, with Facebook offering up to 71 gender options. These various gender / sex terms help people understand themselves and […]]]>


When it comes to gender and / or sex (gender / sex), the story is much richer than just “woman or man”. All over the world, people use an array of terms to describe their identity, with Facebook offering up to 71 gender options. These various gender / sex terms help people understand themselves and communicate their gender / sex to others. Researchers may find them useful as well, but scientists sometimes want to be able to think about all of these genders / sexes together, which can be difficult with so many terms. Scientists also sometimes want to know if different people mean the same thing when they use a term; Do all people mean the same thing when they say they are “non-binary” or a “woman”?

In our study, we used specially designed diagrams that people were inspired by, and we put their answers together to create “heat maps”. These heat maps provide a visual representation of the wide range of gender / sex diversity. We took inspiration from the natural sciences, where complex phenomena like brain activity or global climate models can be communicated through a single image.

To make our heat maps, we used diagrams from the “theory of sexual configurations”, which one of us (van Anders) created in 2015. Participants marked their “location” on these diagrams, including including aspects of gender (socio-cultural aspects of femininity, masculinity, and gender diversity), sex (biological / physical aspects of sexual diversity, masculinity and femininity) and “gender / sex” (entire identities or related phenomena men, women and people of various genders). This included how strongly they identified with their gender / sex, whether binary or non-binary, whether they felt their gender / sex challenged norms, and their degree of femininity and masculinity.

Participants could use the diagrams as they liked, which created fascinating shapes in the individual responses. We used computer programming to put the individual drawings together, resulting in heat maps that showed the location of many individuals on the same diagram.

Here we describe the heat map for the ‘gender / sex’ of cisgender women, or their relationship to their entire identity. There is a hot spot – red – in women, which means that a lot of cisgender women considered themselves squarely as women. But some women felt a bit like women and a bit like men, which may be surprising for people who haven’t met someone with this existence (or who don’t know they have. ). Some have marked themselves in the non-binary area. And, many women have said that they don’t really feel their femininity.

This is a heat map for our non-binary participants focusing on gender, which describes relationships with femininity, masculinity, and other genders. Non-binary people have shown a wide range of locations. Unsurprisingly, this included a good chunk of the non-binary area of ​​the diagram and almost all of the “challenge area,” where genders that go against the norm of what society considers “feminine” or “feminine” can go. “male”.

Many non-binary people feel that their gender is outside the norm and / or that they are intentionally challenging society’s expectations for their gender, so it makes sense that they made heavy use of the challenge zone. And, non-binary participants reported a wide range of the importance of their gender to them, from not at all to a lot.

These heatmaps reveal a complexity we might not otherwise have seen, such as identifying some cisgender women as more than just women. And, they help us portray something very complex in an image, like the various relationships of non-binary people to gender, so that we can reflect on the rich diversity of gender / sex.

Our hope is that these heatmaps can encourage even more creative thinking about gender beyond a male / female binary and help scientists and academics conduct research that reflects the amazing gender / sex diversity in the world. world.

The study, “Visualizing Gender / Sex Diversity Via Sexual Configuration Theory,” was published in Psychology of sexual orientation and gender diversity.



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Max Howard obituary (1934 – 2021) – Charlotte, North Carolina https://1cplusplusstreet.com/max-howard-obituary-1934-2021-charlotte-north-carolina/ https://1cplusplusstreet.com/max-howard-obituary-1934-2021-charlotte-north-carolina/#respond Tue, 13 Jul 2021 01:59:22 +0000 https://1cplusplusstreet.com/max-howard-obituary-1934-2021-charlotte-north-carolina/ Max Howard, Sr. January 1, 1934 – July 9, 2021 Charlotte, NC – Max Edward Howard, Sr., aged 87, passed away on July 9, 2021. A Celebratory Life Funeral Service will be held at 2 p.m. on Tuesday, July 13, 2021 at Alexis Baptist Church with Reverend Scott Jenkins as celebrant. Interment will follow in […]]]>


Max Howard, Sr.
January 1, 1934 – July 9, 2021
Charlotte, NC – Max Edward Howard, Sr., aged 87, passed away on July 9, 2021.
A Celebratory Life Funeral Service will be held at 2 p.m. on Tuesday, July 13, 2021 at Alexis Baptist Church with Reverend Scott Jenkins as celebrant. Interment will follow in the church cemetery. The family will receive friends from 1:00 p.m. to 1:45 p.m. before the church service.
Max was born January 1, 1934 in Stanley, North Carolina, to Leonard O. Howard and Myrtle Cloniger Howard. He graduated from Stanley High School in 1952 and entered the US Army in December 1953. He served in the US Tactical Forces of Southern Europe and was based in Salzburg, Austria, Trieste, Italy and Manheim, Germany while on duty. He was honorably discharged in April 1956. He then went to work for Burlington Industries in 1956 and in 1959 was recommended for the computer programming school held at the IMB Technical Center in Atlanta. With a two week training in programming, he started a career in information systems. Max had a 30 year career with Celanese Industries starting in 1963. He started as a computer programmer and retired as director of IT operations. After his retirement, he continued to work as a consultant for Celanese until 1992, before consulting with Wellman and Fiber Industries until 2002. He was a long-time member of the Alexis Baptist Church where he was a deacon, taught Sunday school for many years and has led the Boy Scout Troupe for many years as well.
Max met the love of his life, Emily Roach Howard in 1958 and they were married for 54 happy years until his death in 2013. He is survived by a brother, Wayne Howard of Alexis, North Carolina and by his children, Ed Howard and wife Kathy from Aiken, SC and Kim Latham and husband Steve from Waxhaw, NC. He is also survived by the joys of his life, his grandchildren, Edward Howard of Aiken, SC, Sam Latham of Waxhaw, NC and Katie Latham of Los Angeles, CA. He is predeceased by his parents, his wife, Emily Roach Howard, and a brother, Lee Roy Howard.
Memorials can be made at Alexis Baptist Church, 118 Alexis Church Road, Alexis, NC 28006, or at Rainbow Express Ministries at www.rainbowexpressministries.com
Warlick Funeral Home serves the Howard family.

Posted by Charlotte Observer on July 12, 2021.



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