Berlin – If you can only build on the statutory pension in old age, look in the tube. But how do you correctly calculate how much money is needed in retirement? And how do you avoid a pension gap? Theo Pischke, pension expert of Stiftung Warentest, gives tips for the calculation.

Image: Mature couple

The situation is clear for Theo Pischke. “Most insured persons will have a pension gap,” says the pension expert of Stiftung Warentest. This refers to the difference between the statutory pension and the amount that consumers need for their standard of living in retirement. The reason for this is the demographic trend. The working population will have to pay more and more pensioners in the future. As a result, the pension level drops steadily.

Anyone who retires in 2012 can expect a pension of around 1270 euros. However, this only applies if he has paid 45 years into the pension fund in the old federal states with an average annual salary of about 32,400 euros. In the new federal states, the average pension is slightly lower. Who has earned less, gets less statutory pension. Anyone who has earned on average, but has paid shorter, also gets a smaller pension.

The working population must pay more and more pensioners

The average pensioner receives a good 47 percent of his gross salary this year. In 2030, the average pension will have already shrunk to 40 percent of the last gross income. This is what the German Council of Economic Experts predicts for the assessment of overall economic development. “Most pensioners will therefore not even reach the 40 percent in 30 years, because they have earned below average or not get 45 contribution years together and therefore not the full pension entitlement,” says Pischke. Martin Reißig of the Federal Association of pension consultants therefore predicts: “The state pension will be in the future only a basic supply.”

Nobody comes around saving

In order for it does not remain with the basic supply, most must save additional. How much is missing, one learns by calculating the personal pension gap. The starting point for the calculation is the expected statutory pension. The German pension insurance sends this annually a pension information to the insured. The form results in the anticipated amount of the statutory pension.

“The prognosis, however, provides only a clue about the expected pension,” says Josephine Holzhäuser of the Verbraucherzentrale Rheinland-Pfalz. If something changes in the occupational situation, such as child-raising periods or unemployment, the pension entitlements change as well. “Anyone who has been working full-time for some years and has paid heavily into the pension fund, but then suddenly takes a longer break, for the predicted pension is no longer in the specified amount.”

80 percent of the last net salary is realistic

Based on the extrapolation of the German pension insurance, however, everyone can at least roughly determine how much he needs in addition. “Who wants to keep his usual standard of living in retirement, needs about 80 percent of the last net salary, to 20 percent can do without most,” says Pischke.

Many expenses fall away in old age

The reason: many expenses fall away in old age. For example, retirees no longer have to pay any contributions to the statutory pension. Occupational expenditures such as travel expenses to work also save retirees, also possible rates for a real estate loan or training costs for the children. Depending on the lifestyle, however, costs can also be added, for example for travel and hobbies. In addition, usually the health costs increase in old age. “Depending on your personal situation, it may therefore be that 80 percent of the last net salary is not enough,” warns Josephine Holzhäuser.

Theo Pischke also points out that the German pension insurance calculated in their annual pension forecast no monetary devaluation. “The authority refers only to an expected annual inflation rate of 1.5 percent, each insured must plan the purchasing power loss of his pension itself.”

Employees can use the information letter from Deutsche Rentenversicherung and the Rentenlückenrechner of Stiftung Warentest to find out how much they have to cover for retirement in addition. It is also assumed that an annual depreciation rate of 1.5 percent. That is the average inflation rate of the past 20 years. This means that a monthly pension of 800 euros is only worth about 680 euros with a corresponding loss of purchasing power in 10 years.

Ideal is a combination of occupational pension and Riester pension

If you now know the personal pension gap, you should additionally provide for the necessary amount for the age. “Meaningful is always a mix.” Employees usually pay a company pension in combination with the state-subsidized Riester pension, advises Reißig. Rigid pension plans with a regular obligation to pay contributions are in his view currently not recommended: “Now you should rather collect his money, put it for example on the time deposit account, buy funds with low fees and wait for the interest rate market has recovered again Buying a property can be an alternative “.

To close an impending supply gap, you should start saving early, advises Pischke. “If you start early, you can build up wealth with small amounts, because young savers benefit considerably from compound interest.” The closer one gets to the retirement age, the more expensive it will be to close the pension gap.

News Quick and easy: terminate ADAC membership

News Quick and easy: terminate ADAC membership News always well informed

Thursday, 23.01.14 , written by Christian Hafler The manipulation scandal leaves a deep scratch on the image of the “Yellow Angel”. Consumers now doubt not only the accuracy of various ADAC tests. Many members like you have lost their confidence in the Automobile Club. Can you cancel the ADAC without

Mitgliedschaft beim ADAC kündigen: Kündigungsfrist beachten

Not only the ADAC helps with breakdowns and accidents

They belong to the nearly 19 million members that the ADAC still has. Many of them are shocked by the scandal surrounding the manipulated numbers of participants in the “Yellow Angel” award ceremony. Now, the uncertainty among them is spreading: Has the ADAC also cheated on winter tires or rest stops tests? Most ADAC members are now only clear that behind the friendly breakdown helpers is a large organization with lobby interests. But if you want to quit the ADAC, you can not do this without further ado.

Announce at the ADAC: You should pay attention to this

To terminate membership of the ADAC is possible for you on one condition: observing the notice period of three months to the end of the contribution year. “Cancellation of the ADAC membership can only be done in writing and only at the end of the contribution period with a quarterly period”, it says in the ADAC regulations. If you have just transferred your annual subscription to the Automobile Club, you will probably have to wait a year.

A special right of termination due to the manipulation scandal does not apply. This view is the legal expert of the SWR, Klaus Hempel. “A contract can only terminate without notice if it is unreasonable for one that the contract continues,” explains Hempel.Da the award ceremony, however, has nothing to do with the membership contract, you must not have the right to a termination without notice .

The ADAC termination can be formulated as follows:
“Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,
I hereby cancel my ADAC membership at the earliest opportunity. Please send me the cancellation confirmation in writing.
Sincerely, Max Mustermann “

The ADAC cancellation is received by mail, preferably by registered letter: ADAC, member service, 81360 Munich. Or by fax at 089-76766346.

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AvD as a cheap alternative to the ADAC

If you are now dissatisfied with the ADAC in the course of the ongoing discussion, you can cancel regularly. Because there are not only the “yellow angels” who come to help with breakdowns and accidents. For example, the Automobile Club of Germany (AvD) is a low-cost alternative. For just under 65 euros a year, the AvD offers global roadside assistance. The ADAC, on the other hand, only helps across Europe – but only to members who have a more expensive ADAC “Plus membership” (84 euros per year). In addition, AvD members benefit from the free medical repatriation, should this become necessary after an accident. The AvD is with one million members Germany’s second largest automobile club.

Costs and benefits in comparison

Another possibility is the European Automobile Club (ACE). The club has around 580,000 members. Slightly smaller are the automobile club Verkehr (ACV, 300,000 members) and the car and travel club Germany (ARCD, 100,000 members). When comparing the performance of each provider in detail, you will find that they differ only slightly from each other. It is striking, however, that ADAC Plus members currently pay most for their service. For some of them, that may be reason enough to give notice to the ADAC.

Breakdown and accident assistance without ADAC: motor vehicle protection certificate makes it possible

Are you just for accident and roadside assistance at the ADAC? What many do not know: You do not have to go into a club for that. For the towing or recovery of your car and help with breakdowns and accidents often enough a so-called motor vehicle protection letter . Many automakers and insurance companies offer these for little money. In general, the benefits of insurance are even the cheaper alternative, says Peter Grieble of the consumer center Baden-Württemberg. Compared to the Tagesspiegel, Grieble explains that this module often only costs ” a few euros “. Depending on the provider, the benefits of a motor vehicle protection certificate are similar to those of good automobile membership, for example with regard to repatriation. However, what a letter of protection actually does, you will learn directly from the motor insurance.

More news about consumer news

# Baukindergeld will not change the housing shortage in the cities # Question of the week: What comes with the new travel law on vacationers? # Termination of employment contracts: “Swiss Post’s procedure is unsocial” 05/31/2018 Baukindergeld will not change the housing shortage in the cities 05/30/2018 ARD plus minus: health insurance contribution for many self-employed too high 05/29/2018 What financial protection do students have when they are disabled? 05/28/2018 Rürup, Riester and Co .: Which private retirement provision makes sense? 05/25/2018 Question of the week: What comes with the new travel law on vacationers?


Verivox Kundenbewertung 29.05.2018 um 17:35 Uhr Alles OK. Verivox Kundenbewertung 28.05.2018 um 12:16 Uhr kurz, schnell, schmerzlos Verivox Kundenbewertung 28.05.2018 um 11:02 Uhr Stromanbieterwechsel sehr einfach, übersichtliche Darstellung beim Anbietervergleich, negativ: Verivox erhält keine Nachricht wenn der Anbieter warum auch immer ablehnt! Deshalb keine Rückkopplung zum Kunden möglich. Verivox Kundenbewertung 28.05.2018 um 09:35 Uhr Ich schätze die Verivox-Bewertungen als sehr neutral und ehrlich Verivox Kundenbewertung 27.05.2018 um 09:54 Uhr Es werden passende Angebote angezeigt. Jedoch unterscheiden diese sich meist nur in der Höhe der Prämien. Verbrauchsdaten sind zwar unterschiedlich, der Gesamtverbrauchspreis aber nicht.

Kreditkarten-Vergleich: Gebühren optimieren

In unserer Gesellschaft geht ohne Kreditkarte kaum noch etwas. Sie dient zum Einkaufen mit Zahlungsziel und im Internet oder zum Abheben von Bargeld im Ausland. Auch an der Tankstelle und bei der Autovermietung wollen wir auf die Vorteile des „Plastikgeldes“ nicht verzichten. In Deutschland sind vor allem Kreditkarten dieser Anbieter gebräuchlich: Visa, MasterCard, American Express und Diners Club. Die beiden erstgenannten werden von Banken, meist als Classic- oder Gold-Karten mit einem Girokonto, die anderen von Kartengesellschaften direkt ausgegeben. Beliebt sind auch Kreditkarten der Barclays Bank, kurz Barclaycard genannt. Ein Kreditkarten-Vergleich mit Verivox lohnt sich, um die optimale Karte auszuwählen.

Wer eine Kreditkarte nutzt, muss dafür Gebühren zahlen. Wie hoch diese ausfallen, unterscheidet sich von Anbieter zu Anbieter und darin, ob es sich um Classic-, Gold- oder Platinkarten handelt. Bei einigen Emittenten fällt keine Gebühr für den Kreditkartenantrag oder die Kartenausgabe an, andere verzichten auf eine Jahresgebühr und berechnen nur umsatzabhängige Kosten. Manche Herausgeber erheben außerdem keine Sollzinsen.

Damit die Gebühren im Rahmen bleiben, ist es wichtig, einen Vergleich der Kartenangebote durchzuführen. Denn nicht für jeden ist jeder Kartentyp geeignet. Insbesondere der effektive Jahreszins spielt eine entscheidende Rolle, denn er beinhaltet neben dem Zinssatz nahezu alle Nebenkosten. Zusätzlich kann noch der Nominalzins genannt werden. Er zeigt allerdings den reinen Zinssatz, ohne Berücksichtigung von Gebühren und Nebenkosten. Die Zinsen können jedoch genutzt werden, indem man die Kreditkarte als Alternative zum Tagesgeldkonto verwendet.

Achten Sie bei einem Kreditkarten-Vergleich mit dem Kreditkarten-Rechner des unabhängigen Verbraucherportals auf versteckte Kosten, wie Zinsen und eingeschränkte Angebote. Einige Emittenten setzen Mindestumsätze voraus, damit die Kreditkarte ohne eine Grundgebühr geführt werden kann. Andere Kreditkartengesellschaften bieten dagegen Guthabenzinsen oder günstige Zinssätze nur für Neukunden. Auch Zusatzleistungen können nur für einen beschränkten Kundenkreis gelten.

Kreditkarten von Visa

Visa ist die weltweit größte Kreditkartengesellschaft und die Visa-Card zählt zu den beliebtesten Kreditkarten. Ob Bargeldabhebung , Bezahlen an der Tankstelle oder Online-Shopping mit Zahlungsziel, die verschiedenen Visa-Produkte stellen jede Zielgruppe zufrieden. Die Visa-Card ist als Classic-, Gold, Platinum- und Infinite-Card erhältlich und wird meistens von Banken herausgegeben. Des Weiteren stehen Geschäftskunden die Commercial, bzw. die Corporate Card zur Verfügung.

Die MasterCard-Kreditkarte

Auch mit der MasterCard sind überall im In- und Ausland Bargeldabhebungen relativ günstig möglich. Sie gehört ebenfalls zu den häufig genutzten Kreditkarten in Deutschland. Das Angebot des 1966 gegründeten Unternehmens umfasst ebenfalls Classic-, Gold- und Platinum-, sowie die Word Elite Karten. Aber auch für Firmenkunden oder Jugendliche werden Lösungen, wie die MasterCard Professional und die MasterCard Prepaid, geboten. Außerdem stehen eine Vielzahl von Zusatzleistungen in Verbindung mit dem Einkauf auf Zahlungsziel zur Verfügung – wer gezielt nach einem Bonusprogramm oder einer Auslandskrankenversicherung sucht, kann hier fündig werden.

Kreditkarten von American Express

Die American-Express-Card stammt, wie der Name schon sagt, aus den USA. Das Unternehmen wurde 1850 zunächst als Eilzustelldienst gegründet und erst 40 Jahre später zum Finanzdienstleister. Besonderheiten der Kreditkarten von American Express sind das Bonusprogramm Membership Rewards, bei dem Punkte gesammelt werden, die gegen Prämien eingelöst werden können, und der Wegfall eines Ausgabenlimits. Wie auch Visa und MasterCard bietet American Express Standard- und Premium-Karten an. Allerdings fallen für diese erheblich höhere jährliche Gebühren an. Die Gebühren für die Centurion-Karte liegen sogar im 4-stelligen Bereich und sie kann nur auf Einladung erhalten werden. Dafür bringt sie aber ein breites Spektrum an Zusatzleistungen mit sich.

Diners Club – das Urgestein unter den Kreditkarten

Die Diners-Club-Card war die erste ihrer Art. Sie wurde Anfang der 1950er in New York von Frank McNamara entwickelt und gilt als Vorreiter von American Express und Visa. Außerdem war dies der erste Anbieter, welcher Bonusprogramme mit Auslandskrankenversicherung und der Nutzung von Flughafenlounges entwickelte – dies macht sie vor allem bei Geschäftskunden beliebt. Wie auch bei American Express wird auf ein Ausgabenlimit verzichtet – unbegrenzte Bargeldabhebungen oder Einkäufe mit Zahlungsziel sind damit ein Kinderspiel. Im Gegenzug müssen jedoch eine Jahresgebühr und Sollzinsen entrichtet werden.

Richtiger Umgang mit der Kreditkarte: Schutz vor Missbrauch und Überschuldung

Um Missbrauchsversuche zu vermeiden, ist es wichtig, auf Sicherheit zu achten. Dazu zählen im Falle von Verlust oder Diebstahl das sofortige Melden und das Onlineshoppen auf verschlüsselten SSL-Leitungen. Ein weiterer Punkt ist das Risiko der Kreditkartenschuldenfalle. Hier droht die Überschuldung, welche durch die Bezahlung mit Zahlungsziel hervorgerufen werden und die durch Kostenkontrolle und Ratenzahlung verhindert werden kann. Gerade für Auszubildende und Studenten eignet sich die Prepaid-Card, mit der richtiger Umgang mit der Kreditkarte gelernt und die Gefahr der Überschuldung umgangen werden kann.

Unterschiedliche Kreditkartentypen: Prepaid-, Debit-, und Chargekarte

Verschiedene Typen von Kreditkarten werden unterschieden. Am verbreitetsten ist die Debitkarte, die hierzulande als EC-Karte bekannt ist. Die Belastung erfolgt nach der Ausgabe, daher werden Kredite nur über kurze Zeit eingeräumt.

Allgemein als Kreditkarte bekannt ist die Chargekarte. Die Abrechnung erfolgt in der Regel auf monatlicher Basis, der Inhaber erhält eine Rechnung über die getätigten Ausgaben. Viele Banken bieten außerdem das Kartendoppel, bestehend aus Visa und MasterCard, welches Vorteile bei Zahlungen im Ausland und für Selbständige bietet.

Ebenfalls mittlerweile sehr bekannt ist die Prepaid-Kreditkarte. Sie wird auch als „Kreditkarte ohne Schufa“ bezeichnet, was sie für Menschen mit schwacher Bonität attraktiv macht. Charakteristisch ist, dass sie zunächst wie eine Prepaid-Handykarte mit einem Guthaben aufgeladen wird, bevor sie für Geldabhebungen oder den Kauf auf Zahlungsziel eingesetzt wird. Genau genommen handelt es sich also nicht um eine Kreditkarte, da sie ihrem Besitzer keinen Kredit einräumt. Auch dieses Produkt kann man im Verivox Kreditkarten-Rechner vergleichen.

Spezielle Kreditkartentypen – Daily-Charge-, Revolving- und virtuelle Kreditkarte

Des Weiteren gibt es eine Kombination aus Prepaid- und klassischer Kreditkarte, die allerdings in Deutschland noch nicht sehr verbreitet ist. Sie nennt sich Daily-Chargekarte und kann einerseits mit einem Guthaben aufgeladen werden, bietet aber auch einen Kreditrahmen, wenn das Guthaben aufgebraucht ist.

Ein jüngeres Modell ist die virtuelle Kreditkarte. Sie eignet sich zur Verwendung im Internet. Wie der Name andeutet, erhält der Nutzer kein physisches Kartenmodell, sondern nur die notwendigen Daten (Kartennummer, Prüfziffer, Gültigkeit). Damit kann er Zahlungen tätigen, für die keine Kreditkarte vorgelegt werden muss.

Bei der Revolving-Card werden Kreditkartenumsätze nicht automatisch über das Girokonto verbucht. Der Kunde kann zwischen der Rückzahlung des Rechnungsbetrags in einer Summe oder in Raten wählen. Favorisiert der Kunde die Ratenzahlung, werden Zinsen fällig. Die Höhe der Teilzahlungen wird vertraglich geregelt und beläuft sich meist auf fünf bis zehn Prozent der Verbindlichkeit. Zudem wird eine monatliche Mindestrückzahlungssumme vereinbart. Begleicht der Kunde den offenen Rechnungsbetrag zeitnah, bleibt er von Zinsen befreit.

Kreditkarten-Vergleich bei Verivox

Vergleichen Sie mit dem kostenlosen Vergleichs-Rechner von Verivox die Anbieter und deren Zusatzleistungen. Ein spezielles Angebot für Verivox-Kunden stellt die Santander Consumer Bank. Mit dieser Visa-Card kann weltweit kostenlos Bargeld abgehoben werden. Des Weiteren bekommen die Inhaber Bonusprogramme, wie 1% Tankstellenrabatt und 5% Reiserabatt.

American Express

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Spain resumes crucial debt issues due to investor concern

Spain resumes crucial debt issues due to investor concern

  • The Treasury will place on Thursday new tranches of old issues of three-year and five-year bonds and ten-year bonds.
  • After 15 days without facing the market, the auction is crucial: the minimum rebound in profitability will open speculation about the rescue of the financial sector.
  • Although in recent auctions the interest that Spain has had to pay has not stopped growing, the reaction of the markets has been excellent.
  • According to the Secretary General of the Treasury says that 58% of needs for this year of funding have already been met.
  • The latest report from the Bank for International Settlements says that concern over Spain and Italy has increased volatility in markets and risk premiums.
  • GRAPH: The figures that weigh down on Spain.
Banco de España

Top of the facade of the Bank of Spain. Jorge Paris

Spain resumes this week debt issues , after 15 days without facing the market, with a momentous auction in which the minimum rebound in profitability will reopen speculation about the rescue of the financial sector and the country as a whole.

The Treasury will place on Thursday new tranches of old issues of three-year and five-year bonds and ten-year bonds.

Specifically, it will issue three-year bonds with a coupon of 3.3% and due on October 31, 2014; five-year bonds with a coupon of 4.25% and maturity on October 31, 2016, and ten-year bonds with coupon of 5.85% and maturity in January 2022.


Until now, and despite the fact that in recent auctions the interest that Spain has had to pay has not stopped growing, the market reaction has been excellent , with coverage ratios -proportion between the demand and the amount awarded- that has overcome on four occasions the four times.

However, the pressure on Spain comes from all angles, including some of the most prestigious means of communication in the economic sphere, which put the economic policy of the Government in the pillory and in doubt the support it has for institutions like the European Central Bank (ECB) or the IMF.

Both organizations were forced to deny that they had disallowed the government’s plans on the nationalization of Bankia, the first, and that there was no plan to rescue Spain, the second.

And this weekend the Executive denied German pressure for Spain to resort to the European rescue fund for banking problems, to questions on a note by Der Spiegel according to which the German Minister of Finance, Wolfgang Schäuble, pressed on that sense to the holder of Economy, Luis de Guindos , in a meeting last Wednesday in Berlin.

Risk premium and financing

Among so many conjectures, Spain’s risk premium – which measures the spread between the Spanish ten-year bond and the German bond of the same term – reached maximums this week since the creation of the euro above 547 basis points, and increasingly closer of the levels from which the ransoms of Ireland, Portugal and Greece were inevitable.

The effect it has on the market is that the higher the risk premium, the more it costs Spain to finance itself because it has to offer a higher return to investors to agree to buy Spanish public debt issues.

Although the Government has placed in the possible exit of Greece from the euro zone the origin of almost all the evils, the certain thing is that experts and analysts also point to the situation of Bankia like source of distrust .

The Minister of Economy, Luis de Guindos, acknowledged that such high financing costsare not sustainable in the long term , although he attributed the rise in country risk to doubts about the political future in Greece.

The Secretary General of the Treasury, Íñigo Fernández de Mesa, reiterated that Spain is financed without problems , and that the funding for this year is “very advanced” and 58% of the needs for this year have already been covered, while remembering that the average cost of financing in the emissions made in the first quarter of this year was 3%, down from 3.9% in the same period of 2011

The debate on a possible bailout of Spain, openly and openly, has focused on the financial sector rather than the possible exit of Greece from the euro.

The rescue options

A comprehensive report on Spain published this week by Morgan Stanley said that the rescue to Spain “is an option “, with advantages to disadvantages.

Among the former, he stressed that the separation between sovereign risk and financial risk would be clear, and between the latter it referred to the inevitable implementation of harsh fiscal and labor measures.

The analysis department of Banco Sabadell assumes intervention in the financial sector and points out that what remains to be defined is whether the “bank rescue” will be made through Spain (accompanied by loss of sovereignty and with an uncertain effect on the risk premium) or directly to banks in need through the European Stability Mechanism (ESM).

The latter is not possible without changes , because this mechanism can not at the moment lend directly to the banks.

Greece vs Spanish financial sector

Barclays analysts, meanwhile, put both issues -Greece and the Spanish financial sector- at the same level, although they add a nuance.

Although they rule out Greece leaving the single currency in the “near future”, they do not completely dismiss that possibility, which would cause major upsets in the euro area.

With regard to the recapitalization of banks, they introduce Italy into the equation, and ensure that in neither country do politicians finish taking the necessary measures to guarantee the request for aid.

Increase investor concern

On the other hand, the concern for growth in Spain and Italy, as well as the signs of weaker growth in the US and China worry investors and have increased the volatility in the markets and triggered the risk premiums of sovereign debt. , according to the latest quarterly report of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), published this Sunday.

“The concern about a possible short-term negative impact on the growth of fiscal consolidation in Spain and the slow pace of labor market reforms and other structural reforms in Italy, were reflected in the increase in yields on sovereign bonds ” said the BPI.

“The optimism in the financial markets began to evaporate in the second half of March due to the return of concerns about the growth of the euro zone, especially in Spain and Italy, ” the BIS assures in the report on the situation of financial markets in the last three months.

He added that it was clear that “monetary policy actions alone would not be enough to solve the economic problems of the euro area.” The spreads on the sovereign bonds of Spain and Italy against the German public debt have widened considerably.

The fall of some indicators such as the purchasing managers’ index of the manufacturing sector and business confidence in the euro area also contributed to “a less positive growth picture for France and Germany”, the BPI adds, whose headquarters are located at Swiss city of Basel.

The BPI notes that “investors also withdrew when Standard & Poor’s downgraded to Spain and several of the country’s largest financial institutions on April 26.”

The downgrade of the rating of Spain’s sovereign debt two notes to BBB + was reflected in the auction of bonds worth 2,500 million euros on May 2, with an increase in interest rates of 140 basis points for terms shorts

“Over the past three months, the financial markets shifted their focus from the hope of global economic recovery to concern for Europe, ” according to the BBI.

Investor confidence improved substantially after the three-year refinancing operations of the European Central Bank (ECB). In addition, the hopes of a sustained economic recovery gained strength due to the good news from the United States and the strong growth of the emerging markets.

“However, towards the end of May, optimism gave way to doubts about European economic growth, the financial health of sovereigns and banks in the euro area, the effects of fiscal consolidation on growth and political stability within the region. the euro area, “says the BIS.

All this, together with the signs of a more fragile growth in the US and China worried investors and increased the volatility of international financial markets.

Market movements in May clearly indicated that political events in the euro area added significant uncertainty .

The euro began to depreciate strongly due to the political paralysis after the elections in Greece and the concern for a possible exit from the euro zone and its impact, as well as concern for Spanish banks.

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